...justifications, varying shades of gray, degrees of crime and guilt. And yes, it is true that very few people can be categorically pigeonholed; an individual may behave differently simply given a different set of circumstances -- can be both a bully or a victim simply depending on the conditions. But, deny as you might, a frank evaluation of life will reveal a startling conclusion, that many many situations boil down to these basics: bully, victim, bystander. Now why is that? Well, you -- like every other living thing on this planet -- are just a big carbon-based (instead of silicon-based) computer. You are a painstakingly intricate vessel meant to accomplish one thing and one thing alone. You are to carry a code. That's it. Now, this code is not alive per se -- but nonetheless, it "wants" to exist. It does not "want" to disappear. It "wants" to continue. But the world is a harsh place (too many variables). A single copy of the code is not very safe; it can be easily destroyed. So, the code makes copies of itself. That is why every cell in your body carries the code. To ensure its existence, the code must replicate. And since copies keep getting destroyed, the code must keep replicating. The fancier the code, the fancier the body to house it. You walk, talk, eat, kiss, love and make love. The code makes you do it all. It's survival depends on it. The cells in your body divide, and the code makes a copy of itself. When cells in your body...
Who am I and why am I here?written by Beth on November 19, 2013 in Content and News with one Comment
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November 21 is World Philosophy Day* so we’re taking a quick look at what philosophy is all about and introducing you to some of the great philosophers.
Getting to grips with exactly what ‘philosophy’ means is about as tricky as some of the questions the discipline itself tries to answer. Philosophy, literally meaning ‘the love of wisdom’, is all about knowledge, learning and scholarship. Everyone who has achieved a PhD is officially a Doctor of Philosophy, but that doesn’t necessarily make them philosophers according to the common use of the word. The Oxford English Dictionary’s etymology of the word ‘philosophy’ includes the ‘love of truth and virtuous living’, ‘the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, and the basics and limits of human understanding’ as well as ‘natural science’ and ‘alchemy’.
Philosophers are thinkers, intellectual fact-finders and theorists. They try to answer some of the fundamental questions about human existence, questions such as ‘Who am I?’, ‘Why am I here?’, ‘Do humans really have free will?’, ‘Does God exist?’, ‘Is what I see and experience real?’
‘I think therefore I am’, is a philosophical conclusion from René Descartes, who in order to work out what he really, really did know for sure, started by doubting everything. He knew that he definitely could and did think (what he thought about being irrelevant), and so concluded that if he could think, he must exist.
The concepts philosophy deals with are as old as the human race and the discipline of exploring them has given rise to science and logic with their many varied branches, including metaphysics and computing.
Speaking of branches, one philosophical question I’m sure you’ll all have debated at length was set by Bishop George Berkeley in 1710 – if a tree falls in a forest and no-one is there to hear it, does it make a sound? This isn’t a trick question, it’s all about unobserved reality – how can we be absolutely sure that something exists if we cannot perceive it ourselves?
If you’d like more philosophical riddles, check out this blog, which poses and discusses the questions: Should we kill healthy people for their organs? Are you the same person who started reading this article? Is that really a computer screen in front of you? Did you really choose to read this article?
Does your head hurt yet? If it does, try this slightly less intensive brain workout. Here are a dozen great philosophers that you can find in Europeana. How many can you name? Answers below!
‘Portrait: bust of Aristotle.’, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
‘Dispute between an eight-year old boy and Confucius (Hasa no ko to Koshi no mondo) ‘, Rijksmuseum, public domain
‘Descartes, René (1596 – 1650)’, Digital Mechanism and Gear Library and thinkMOTION, CC BY-NC-ND
David Hume / Carmontelle, French National Library and The European Library, public domain
‘Immanuel Kant. Aquatint silhouette.’, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
Saint Thomas Aquinas. Line engraving by S. Jesi., The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
‘John Locke. Colour stipple engraving by Lecoeur, 1800, after’, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
Portrait of Avicenna; anon.,, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
‘Plato. Etching by Remondini.’, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
‘[Socrate, vu de face] : [dessin] / [Lagneau]’, French National Library and The European Library, public domain
‘Epicurus. Line engraving by F. Copparoli after N. Vanni.’, The Wellcome Library and The European Library, CC BY-NC
‘Portretbuste van Zeno van Elea’, Rijksmuseum, public domain
From top to bottom, left to right, these great philosophers are: Aristotle, Confucius, Descartes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, St Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, Avicenna, Plato, Socrates, Epicurus, Zeno of Elea.
* World Philosophy Day is celebrated every third Thursday of November.